http://www.etwinning.fr/

MenuComenius_2013___La_ligne_du_temps.html

MenuComenius_2013___La_ligne_du_temps.html

Prehistory

Antiquity

  Middle Ages

  Modern Times

Contemporary Period

Belgium

Contemporary time

From 1789 to the present day.


It's time companies industrial, the independence of Belgium in 1830, the

First World War (1914 - 1918), the Second World War (1940 - 1945), the

Treaty of Rome, the Conquest of Space (man walked on the moon in 1969).

It is also for Belgium, its participation in the development of the European Union and the appearance of a single currency (euro).

Modern Times

From 1453 to 1789

(French Revolution and Declaration

of Human Rights)

This is the time of great

technical discoveries and

Location: printing by

Gutenberg, the discovery of

Americas by Europeans

(Christopher Columbus in 1492) and

the invention of the steam engine

(Denis Papin in 1690).

Domination of Belgium by

Habsburg Spain with

Charles V (1500 - 1558) and

those with Joseph II of Austria

(1741-1790).

The Middle Ages

From 476-1453

(fall of the empire

Eastern Roman)


This is the time of great migrations, invasions, large areas and

development of cities.

This is also the time of the arrival of the Franks (the Merovingians and Clovis), then the Carolingians (Charlemagne).

It is also the arrival of the Vikings

in our regions and construction

the first castles.

In art: appearance of Romanesque and then the Gothic.

Antiquity

800 BC

(appearance of ancient Greece)

to 476 AD

(fall of the Western Roman Empire).


This is the time of the Celts and

Gallo-Romans and the arrival of

Romans in our regions.

Period of the Pax Romana (Peace

Roman) and the future border

linguistics.

Important figure of the time

Julius Caesar (100-44 BC).

He conquered our regions to -57

-52).

Prehistory

The origin of man

(7-5 million years ago)

to the invention of writing

(3200 BC.).


It is time for hunters, gatherers and fishermen (nomads),  the first farmers (sedentary), paintings

rock.

Sweden
Contemporary time
In war against Russia. Sweden lost the war. From this time, 1815, peace in Sweden. 
Jean Baptiste Bernadotte (1818 – 1844) from France, became King of Sweden,  

The 1800s, the population increased in Sweden.  Many moved to the cities or emigrated. Between the years 1865 and 1914 moved nearly one million Swedes to America. 

School for all children in Sweden 1842.

In the 1860s Sweden began to build railroads. Thanks to the railroad Swedes could sell wood and iron to other countries. Large industries were built up and the work went faster with the help of new machines. 

The First World War (1919 – 1918). 
In 1921, women got the right to vote. 
In 1931 the Great Depression in Sweden and also in Europe; unemployment, strikes and demonstrations. 
The Second World War (1939 -1945).
In 1986, Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme was assassinated.
In 1994, a referendum. Yes to join the European Union.

Inventors:
John Eriksson (1803 – 1889), the first propeller-driven steamship.
Gustav de Laval (1845 – 1913) the steam turbine and a milk frothing machine.
Gustav Erik Pasch (1788 – 1862), the safety match.
Lars Magnus Eriksson (1846 – 1926) telephony.
Nanna Svartz (1860 – 1986) medicine in rheumatic diseases.
Baltzar von Platen (1898 – 1984), the refrigerator.

Modern Times

During the 1500s it was a time of Reformation, the Lutheranism was introduced, and the church's resources were under the crown, thereby strengthening the monarchy.
In the 1700s, the Enlightenment, people in Europe got better economy. Many learned to read.

From the mid-1500s to early 1700s, Sweden was involved in several wars around the Baltic Sea. Sweden fought with Denmark, Russia, Poland and Germany and gained control over large parts of the Baltic Sea.

Anders Celsius (1701 – 1744), a famous astronomer. Invented the Celsius scale.

The Middle Ages

Began at 1000 AD, when the Christianization of Sweden started.


During the 1200s new towns were built up and Sweden was divided into landscapes. Denmark, Norway and Sweden fought about the power. In 1397 the countries became one single country.

In the mid-1300s there was a large reduction of the population in Europe, because of the plague or the Black Death.

Gustav Vasa became king June 6 1523, after two years of liberation war. It was now peace in Sweden. He changed the church from Catholic to Protestant.


Antiquity

The Iron Age, 500 BC – 800 AD, things made ​​of iron, especially swords, shields, tools and appliances. Rune stones are found from this time.


The Viking Age occurred 800 AD – 1000 AD. The Vikings built boats and sailed on the ocean. They were good at war and were engaged in foreign trade. The Vikings took the power in many countries in northern Europe. Many emigrated and settled among others in Scotland, England, Ireland, Russia, and France.

The Vikings believed in Norse gods; Norse mythology.


Prehistory

People have lived in the north for several hundred thousand years. About 13 000 BC, the whole of Sweden was covered by ice for about 3000 years; the Ice Age. After the Ice Age; people lived by hunting and fishing. About 5000 BC, people lived an agricultural life and used tools of stone and wood. This long period is called The Stone Age.


The Bronze Age 1800 BC – 500 BC.  People began to buy and sell products in Europe and created things of metal and bronze. People created new styles and items. Rock carvings are found from this time.


Comenius_2013___ligne_du_temps_Belgique.html

Contemporary time

Since the French Revolution (1789) until today.


. Two Great World Wars.

. Global hegemony of the United States in the economic sphere.

. Invention of the combustion engine.

. Crowd of artistic movements, also in literature.

. Space travel.

War of Independence against Napoleon.

. Loss of Spanish colonial rule (1808-1898)

. Pessimism Generation 98 national literature.

. Carlist Wars.

. Generation 27

. Spanish Civil War.

. Franco era.

. Establishment of democracy as a form of government.

In art and literature are numerous movements. It's the time of the-isms: modernism, cubism, realism, etc..

Spain is a member of the European Union.España es miembro de la Unión Europea.

Thank you 
Mr Téo ...
Don’t hesitate to click everywhere ...

Comenius_2013___ligne_du_temps_Sweden.html
Italy
Contemporary time
(from 1815 to nowdays)
Following the defeat of the Napoleonic Empire, the reactionary Congress of Vienna restored the pre-existing divisions in Europe, carving up Italy again. Rising Italian nationalism was repeatedly repressed by the Austrian Empire, but the seeds of Italian unification had been thrown. 
Radical Italian nationalists, Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini, were backed by the conservative monarchists, Count Camile Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II, to establish a united Italian state. Following a succession of wars, unity was declared in 1871 as the parliament was established in Rome.
Italy remained neutral at the start of World War I, but joined the Allies a year later on the promise of Austro-Hungarian territories. The country was then plunged into a long war of attrition which drained the economy. Political and social unrest grew when the promised territories were not honored.
Benito Mussolini started a National Fascist Party and attempted a coup in October 1922. King Victor Emmanuel III appointed Mussolini as prime minister to try and control the situation. Mussolini created a dictatorship then he invaded Ethiopia to create a new Roman Empire. He subsequently withdrew from the League of Nations and allies with Nazi Germany. 
Mussolini initially abstained from the fighting, buabstained to join Germany in June 1940 as they seem poised for victory. Italy trird to invade Africa and the Balkans, but required Hitler's support against the Allies each time.
After defeat in North Africa and a stalemate in Greece, Mrequiem was pushed out of Sicily by the Allies in July 1943. His Fascist regime collapsed and in September 1943 Italy surrenfered. 
The Germans recovered northern Italy and set Mussolini up in a puppet state. However the Allies moved north through the Italian peninsula and German forced surrender in Italy on May 2, 1945.
Italy became a republic on June 2, 1946. The economy prospered under the American-led Marshall Plan. Italy was  a founding member of the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957.

Modern Times

(1500-1815 AD)

The history of Italy in this period was characterized by foreign domination: Following the Italian Wars (1494 to 1559), Italy saw a long period of relative peace, first under Habsburg Spain (1559 to 1713) and then under Habsburg Austria (1713 to 1796). During the Napoleonic era, Italy was a client state of the French Republic (1796 to 1814). The Congress of Vienna (1814) restored the situation of the late 18th century, which was however quickly overturned by the incipient movement of Italian unificatiti


The Middle Ages
In Italy the medieval period goes from the fall of the Roman Empire (476 AD) and the Renaissance, around 1500 AD. Historians usually divide this periods into three smaller ones, the Early Middle Ages, the High Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages.
The Early Middle Ages (from the 5th century to the 10th century)
Barbarian tribes started to invade the Italian territory. The first to enter Roman territory were the Visigoths who ended the Late Roman Empire. They were soon followed and replaced by the Ostrogoths led by Theodoric the Great. By 600 AD, the Lombards replaced the Ostrogoths in Italy,  In 774 AD, Charlemagne conquered northern Italy from the Lombards, and soon after that Charlemagne got the Pope to name him the Holy Roman Emperor. 
For the next three hundred years, northern Italy was in the hands of the Holy Roman Emperor; that is, it belonged to the sons and grandsons of Charlemagne. During this period three different groups of people ruled Italy: the Islamic Empire ruled the south, the Popes ruled the middle, and the Holy Roman Empire ruled the north.
By about 900 AD, the Holy Roman Emperors began to lose power over Northern Italy, and Northern Italy divided into a lot of independent city-states. 
The High Middle Ages (1000–1300 A.D.)
While the south of Italy and the Papal States were governed centrally, the big and rich port cities of northern Italy   (Genoa, Florence, Pisa and Venice) arise. Each city was independent and they frequently had wars with each other and with the Papal States to their south, as well as with the French to the north. 
The Late Middle Ages (1300–1500 A.D)
Most of Italy was engulfed in internal warfare and political anarchy in the 1300s.  In Naples in the south, the King faced rebellions from his aristocrats, who faced uprisings from their serfs; in central Italy, several towns took advantage of the Babylonian Captivity to declare their independence from Papal temporal authority, which led to internal warfare; in northern Italy, the oligarchies that ruled Genoa, Florence, Venice, etc., fought among themselves for power at the same time that these cities' lower classes staged their own rebellions.

Antiquity

Anthiquity started with the Iron Age (around 1000 BC) and ended with  the fall of  Rome (476 AD).

During the Iron Age Italy was populated by Italic tribes: for example the interior of Abruzzo was dominated by the Vestini, Paeligni and Marsi, while the central Adriatic coast was populated by Picentes, Marrucini and Frentani. The Etruscans formed the most important Italic cultural and political ethnic group before the advent of Roman power,

According to legend, Rome was founded on April 21, 753 BC by Romulus and Remus, twin brothers who claimed to be sons of the war god Mars and to have been raised as infants by a she-wolf. Rome went through seven kings until 509 BC when the last king was overthrown and the Roman Republic was formed. In 29 BC the Republic became an Empire and for the next two hundred years, Rome thrived, ruling over a vast territory stretching from Britain and the Atlantic coast of Europe in the north and west to North Africa and the Middle East in the south and east. A combination of economic problems, barbarian invasions, domestic instability and territorial rebellions caused the end of the Roman Empire.


Prehistory

Prehistory is composed by two main periods:

the first one divided into Paleolithic (4.000.000/12.000 years ago), Mesolithic (12.000/ 8.000 years ago), Neolithic (8.000/3.500 years ago) and

the second one, called “protostoria” (early history) or “Metal Age”, that went from the first half of the fourth millennium BC (Copper Age), to the first millennium BC (Iron Age), passing through the Bronze Age.

The earliest human settlements in Italy were around 500 000 years ago and correspond to the Lower Palaeolithic.

During the Palaeolithic and Neolithic Age man's life was based on hunting, fishing and collection of simple vegetables

With the Neolithic period the traditional hunting and gathering economy was replaced by the introduction of agriculture and stock rearing, weaving and pottery.

The discovery of  metals changed the way of  living, hunting and fighting: copper offered Prehistoric man more qualities and could be hardened by hammering or forging and was therefore used to make tools. The bronze (an alloy of copper and tin) was stronger than copper, so it could be hardened by forging into a specific shape.


Comenius_2013___ligne_du_temps_Italie.html
Spain

Modern Times

It begins with the discovery of America (1492) and ends with the French Revolution (1789)


. American Conquest and colonization.

. Gutenberg invented the printing press culture expansion

. Discovery of the steam engine

. Carlos I and Spain where the sun never set. Expansion and Spanish hegemony.

. Because of the numerous wars decay begins early.

Reign: first the house of Austria and the end of the Bourbon period (after the war of succession.

. Boom of Spanish letters is our Golden letters. highlights include:

Cervantes, Quevedo, Calderon de la Barca, ...


The Middle Ages

Since the fall of Rome (476) until the discovery of America (1492).

Emergence of Romanesque and Gothic art.

Reconquista of Muslims

Using gunpowder for military purposes.

Role of the Church as conservative culture.


. Invasion of the Visigoths.

. Conversion of the Visigoths to Christianity and integration with the Hispano-Romans

. Muslim Invasion (711), formation of Al-Andalus and subsequent reconquest ending the reign of the Catholic Monarchs with the fall of Granada (1492).

Christian Kingdoms and Taifa Kingdoms (Muslims)

In culture highlighted in the Caliphate of Cordoba Abd ar-Rahman III (Muslims) and Alfonso X the Toledo school of translators


Antiquity

It runs from the appearance of writing until the fall of the Western Roman Empire

(1000 BC - 476 AD)

. Appear great civilizations Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Phoenicia, Rome ...


. Spain was invaded by the Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians and Romans.

. Fight between Carthaginians and Romans in Spain at the end of Spain is Roman.

. Romanization: the Peninsula adopted the customs, language and laws of the Romans.

At the end of the beginning stage invasions of the barbarians: Swabians, Vandals and Alans.


Prehistory

It starts from the emergence of hominids to the advent of writing. (up to 3200 AC)

. It is time for hunters and fishermen, nomads and the beginning of agriculture.


. Cave paintings.

. In Spain is later about the situation of the Iberian Peninsula.

. Culture of Millares (Almería)

. Cave paintings in Altamira Cave (Cantabria)

. Three peoples inhabited the Iberian Peninsula: Celts, Iberians and Celts.

Tartessos 1100 is the most advanced culture of the time


Comenius_2013___ligne_du_temps_Espagne.html
Thank you 
Mrs Catherine...
Thank you 
Mrs Agneta...
France

Contemporary time

1914-1918: World War I

The planet at war: the extreme violence of the century .Opposition from France to Germany and their allies. The soldiers lived in trenches .This war caused a high number of human losses.

1818-1939: Rise of the violence and the implementation of several totalitarian regimes in Europe.

1939-1945: World War II

Opposition of Nazi Germany and Japan on one side, in Great Britain, France then the United States and the USSR. During this war deportation of million Jews and Gypsies.

Movements of resistance were coordinated by Jean Moulin and the general de Gaulle.

Allies landed in Normandy and made Germany capitulate

After 1945: construction of the peace

Terrible balance sheet of the World War II, to establish the peace creation of the UNO by the states of the world and those of Europe based the EEC then the European Union.

1947-1974: Decolonization

After the war, the colonized peoples demanded their independence. Colonies waited for the gratitude for their participation important for the conflict (soldier, live) Decolonizations were peaceful and other murderesses (Indochina, Algeria).

In March 19th 1946: law of assimilation of which Aimé Césaire is the reporter is voted .It sets up Guadeloupe and Martinique as French department administered by a prefect and who is attend of the General Council. The big services of the French state are installed  there.

The scientific and technical progress in the XXth century (first aeroplane, first computer, first Clerk's Office of the heart)

The fifth republic: 1958 in our days

The constitution distributes the power between the president of the republic, elected in the universal suffrage, the government, the National Assembly and the senate and the courts.

The presidents under the V th republic: Charles de Gaulle, Georges Pompidou, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, François Mitterrand, Jacques Chirac, Nicolas Sarkozy and at present François Hollande.

The French society:

- 1945: a little more comfortable Lifestyle (equipment of the house, the car, the leisure etc.)

- 1944: voting right granted to the women

- 1967: engrave riots in Pointe-à-Pitre. The construction workers go on strike to ask for an increase.

- 1974 Law on the regionalization. Guadeloupe is promoted to the rank of region

- 2000: the French Parliament approves the Guidance law for overseas ( LOUM) which establishes in DOM (FRENCH OVERSEAS DEPARTMENT) a "congress" in the limited powers.

- On May 10th, 2001, the government adopted the text meaning the gratitude of the draft and the slavery as crimes against humanity.

Modern Times
From 1492 till 1815
It is the time of the discoveries. From the XVth century, pushed by the curiosity, the desire to grow rich and to convert to the Christianity of new peoples and to help by the progress of the navigation, the exploration of the world by the European.
In November 4th, 1493: discovered by Christopher Columbus of l " island of Caloucaera " Karukera " (name given by the Caribbean) was renamed " Santa Maria of Guadalupe de Estremadura ".
1492-1519: Conquest of the Antilles with the aim of getting back one gold several rivers
XVIth century, the European took control of America. Extermination of the Amerindians. Exploitation and creation of plantations. They turned to Africa to buy it slaves and make them work in America.
1626: Foundation, with the support of Brogue shoe, of " the Company of Saint Christophe ", for " to exploit and to emphasize " the Antilles. It is to the pirate of Esnambuc that we owe the beginning of the colonization of Lesser Antilles. Thanks to his insistence with Brogue shoe, the ambitious Secretary of king Louis XIII, he manages to convince him that islands full of wealth, again are to be taken in the West Indies.
On 1623, France tries then to be equipped with a colonial politics.Of the Olive, become only governor of the island, begin then a war of extermination persisted against the Carib Indians (war which will last until 1639) 
1638/1639: introduction of the sugar cane 
1644 that the economic vocation of the island takes shape with the intensification of the presence of the culture of the sugar cane
Plantations ask for more and more manpower, also Houël, he takes advantage of the triangular trade (between Europe, Africa and American continent) to supply "cheap" African slaves to the white planters. 
The first " triangular journeys " get organized between the Atlantic ports of France, Africa and the Antilles 1685: the status of the slaves is defined by him(it)
XVè - XVIth century: profound artistic and literary revival with an influence of Italy. Numerous scientific discoveries with Galilee, Copernic, 
Absolute monarchy XVIIè XVIIIème:
- Reign of Louis XIV, peak of the absolute monarchy, based on the power of divine right; splendor of Versailles.
- An unequal company distributed in orders.
- Movement of the lights: pursuit in the freedom, in the tolerance, in the equality and in the better justice
- 1789 The French revolution: déclaration rights of man and the citizen
- 1793: Louis XVI is guillotined - Organized by the terror until 1794.

On June 7th, 1794, Victor Hugues announces to the population the vote by the agreement of the abolition of slavery
Napoleon and the Empire 1799-1815
1802: Napoleon restores the slavery 1804: crowned Napoleon emperor. Committed reformation: civil code, centralized administration, reorganization of the public finances, the creation of high schools …
The official decree of abolition is voted by the IIth Republic on April 27th, 1848 thanks to the efforts of Victor Schœlcher ( 1804-1893 ), Undersecretary of State for the Navy loaded colonies
The Middle Ages
From 476 in 1492
Of the fall of the Roman Empire in the formation of the kingdom:
- Wave of invasion (installation of the Germans in Gaul, foundation of the kingdom of francs, wisigoths and burgondes, enlargement and progressive ascendancy of the kingdom of francs).
 In V ème century, Clovis became the first king of Francs. He obtained the support of the church being baptized.
- Of 741 in 841 Charlemagne and the Carolingian empire in the power .Un to be able to stronger exchange and new invasions in prospect.
- Birth of the kingdom of France and dynasty Capetian (restoring of the royal authority and the creation of a currency.
The society in the Middle Ages:
- The invasions disrupted the big political structures: the power focuses around the Lord who insures the safety thanks to the castle but enslaves(overcomes) the farmers.
- Strong influence of the church in the Middle Ages: construction of numerous churches, cathedrals (Notre-Dame de Paris) characterizes by high walls and big stained-glass windows. We also found numerous monasteries and abbeys.
Difficult times in the Middle Ages:
- Disasters: famine, climatic incidents, black plague, war
- The Hundred Years' War (on 1337 1453):war against English .1429 an army led(driven) by Joan of Arc resumed(took back) Orléans.

The progress in the Middle Ages: 
- Invention of the plow / of the compass, the improvement of ships
- 1455: first book printed by Gutemberg

  In Guadeloupe, the Arawak: 
Between 300 and 700 years later JC: 
A new migration, very important in number, arrives from the delta of the Orinoco: the Arawaks or Tainos, the Indian people native of South America.
The literal translation of Taïno meant: "voucher", "noble".
These natives are in fact of distant descendants of the civilization Saladoïde who, further to numerous evolutions and numerous journeys arrived in Greater Antilles.
All the experts agree on the fact that the social, political and religious organization of the Arawaks, the expression of their art, the structure of their economy, made of them undoubtedly the group of natives the most developed by the West Indian region. 
They possessed a directory varied by expression of art in diverse domains: sculptures, ceramic, jewelry(jeweler's store), dances, musics and poetries.
It was peaceful, sedentary, very evolved, pacifist and very hospitable people. 
The Arawaks were printed by a big wisdom and lived in perfect harmony with the nature. They lived essentially on the agriculture(farming), on the hunting and on the peach(fishing).
In the end of the VIIth century later JC: 
An other one populates invaded the region: the Caribbean.
Migrants of the Orinoco, the Carib Indian ( Karibs) or Kalinas = are formidable warlike peoples. They are going to conquer all the Lesser Antilles by exterminating on their passage the first inhabitants known for islands. They gave to the island the name of Caloucaera ( Karukera) meaning " the island in beautiful waters ".

Antiquity

Of 3000 before JC in 476 after JC
At the beginning of the antiquity, the organization in State of certain big cities.
Birth of the Gaul: foundation multicultural, admixture of population (Celtic come east and from Greek come from Méditérannée, they trained people but were divided into rival tribes)
The Gallic society was divided into three classes: the people, the warriors and the druids. The Gauls were polytheistic. The Gaul was a rich country, thanks to its agriculture and to the business.

The Gallic society was divided into three classes: the people, the warriors and the druids. The Gauls were polytheistic. The Gaul was a rich country, thanks to its agriculture and to the business.
Conquest of de la Gaule by the Roman, in 52 BC  J-C, under the command of Vercingetorix the Gauls united to prevent the grip of the Gaul.
Victoire to Gergovie and undone to Alésia.

Romanization of the Gaul had for consequence to adopt the lifestyle of the Roman in particular in cities create or fitted out on the model of Rome (Lyon, Nîmes) . Rich Gallo - Romain spoke the Latin and dedicated a wide part(party) of their times(weathers) to the leisure activities: games(sets) of the circus(cirque), the bath in thermal baths …
Of II ème in III ème, Christianity spread.

Guadeloupe, as most of the islands of Lesser Antilles, was visited as soon as the man learnt to navigate, that is 4 000 - 5 000 years ago.
The first known Amerindians are said groups "preceramic" of collection, not sedentary hunters(fighters) come from current Venezuela, via(including) Trinidad.
These small groups of nomads settled down rather in the zones of mangrove swamp rich in shells and in game.

Prehistory

Of - 3 million years towards 3000 3500 before J-C.
The prehistory is the oldest period of the past of the humanity. It is known to us by vestiges of this  period, for which the archaeologists look by making searches(excavations) in the ground and study. The famous vestiges of the prehistory in France belong to Carnac, Lascaux, Was in hiding Amata, Pech-Merle etc.
Palaeolithic age of 3 million years in - 8000: tools in cut flint, master of the fire .Hunting, the fishing and the picking were their livelihoods. They were nomadic to follow the herds.Neolithic age 8000 - 2000: first farmers and Neolithic revolution. Settlement, construction of the first houses and the first villages. Use of tools in polite flint, wood and bone. At the beginning of the agriculture. Construction of the stone monuments (Menhir - dolmen)

Age of metals: - 2000 in 200: we pass of farmers' village in the strengthened village. At the end of the prehistory, the human beings discovered how to make tools and weapons in metal (bronze, iron) .The new craft activities: pottery, weaving, basketwork. Manufacturing of bowls in terra-cotta, baskets


Comenius_2013___ligne_du_temps_France.html
Thank you 
Mrs Enrica...